Time Signatures Explained…Those Little Fractions

Do you need those time signatures explained? A lot of people do, They tell you all about the basic beat of the music. This is the basic beat and not necessarally the rhythm of a song.

A song can have rhythms within the basic beat. Also the melody will have its own rhythm or timing.

Similar to what a drummer does with all the different drums.

The time signature is similar to how the drummer plays his bass drum usually on beats one and three in 4/4 time, like a metronome for everyone.

This will vary with different songs and time signatures.


Measures are the way you divide the staff into sections so you can read the music much easier than without.

The time signatures tell you how many beats each measure gets and what note gets a full beat.


Notes are represented as a fraction in the time signature. The bottom number tells you what kind of note gets a full beat.

Imagine a 1 for the top number when you read the bottom number.

A 2 would be a half note, a 4 would be a quarter note and an 8 would be an eighth note.

These are probably the only numbers you will see on the bottom of the fraction.

The Fraction

Top of Fraction

Number of Beats per Measure

Bottom of Fraction

What Note gets a Whole Beat

Common Time Signatures Explained

The below key signatures mean the same thing. Because 4/4 is so common they use a C instead of a fraction.

This is your common 1-2-3-4 beat that you have been listening to since childhood.


In 4/4 time the first beat is played the loudest with the 3rd beat getting a smaller accent than the first.



Windows Media

Time Signatures Explained

Cut Time – “Alla Breve”

This time signature is used for a fast paced songs. Having a half note as your full beat makes it easier to read and count 2 beats rather than 4 beats at a faster pace.

Cut time will still sound and look the same as common time. It’s just counted different

It looks like 4/4 but quarter notes get a half beat in cut time.

These both mean the same thing like the common above but only two beats per measure with the half note getting a whole beat.

This would be counted 1-2 for each measure.

3/4 Time

This is the next most popular time. This could be referred to as a Waltz timing


The Quarter Note gets a Full Beat



Windows Media

3/8 Time


The Eighth Note gets a Full Beat

This would sound the same as 3/4 time it’s just that the eighth note would get a full beat.

The single flag on the note means it’s an eighth note.

6/8 – 12/8 – 5/4

These three you will see but not as often. The 12/8 is common for blues though. It has a shuffle feel to it.

These would all be counted similar to the samples above.

The 5/4 is a combination of 2/4 and 3/4 combined and usually counted like 3/4 and then like 2/4.

The song “Hypnotized” by “Fleetwood Mac” is a 5/4 time song


Guitar Minor 6thChord Images

Guitar minor 6th chord images. These chord images can have different names for the same chord. This is known as plurality in the music theory realm.

The Dm6 chord has the notes D-F-A-B. This is made from the second note of the C major scale.

The Bm7 flat 5 chord comes from the 7th note of the C major scale. Its notes are B-D-F-A, the same as the Dm6 chord

This chord is also used for a G9th chord because it contains all the notes except for the root, G-B-D-F-A. The root of a chord can be left out because the other notes will imply the root and your ears won’t know it’s missing, especially if there are other instrument playing along like a bass player. Keyboard players do this a lot with their chords.

Guitar Minor 6th Chord Images

C Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are C, E flat, G and A.

This chord can come from the B flat major scale and the C Melodic scale.

This chord can also be called Am7♭5 and F9th.

F Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are F, A flat, C and D.

This chord can come from the E flat major scale and the F Melodic scale.

This chord can also be called Dm7♭5 and B♭9th.

B Flat Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are B flat, D flat, F and G.

This chord can come from the A flat major scale and the B flat Melodic minor scale.

This chord can also be called Gm7♭5 and E♭9th.

E Flat Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are E flat, G flat, B flat and C.

This chord can come from the D flat major scale and the E flat Melodic minor scale.

This chord can also be called Cm7♭5 and A♭9th.

A Flat Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are A flat, C flat, E flat and F.

This chord can come from the G flat major scale and the A flat Melodic minor scale.

This chord can also be called Fm7♭5 and D♭9th.

The following chords are the same pitch as the ones above. They just have different names for the key they are written in. F sharp and G flat are the same pitch just different key notation.

G Sharp Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are G sharp, B, D sharp and E sharp.

This chord can come from the F sharp major scale and the G sharp Melodic minor scale.

This chord can also be called E♯m7♭5 and C♯9th.

C Sharp Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are C sharp, E, G sharp and A sharp.

This chord can come from the B major scale and the C sharp Melodic minor scale.

This chord can also be called A♯m7♭5 and F♯9th.

F Sharp Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are F sharp, A, C sharp and D sharp.

This chord can come from the E major scale and the F sharp Melodic minor scale.

This chord can also be called D♯m7♭5 and B9th.

B Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are B, D, F sharp and G sharp.

This chord can come from the A major scale and the B Melodic minor scale.

This chord can also be called G♯m7♭5 and E9th.

E Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are E, G, B and C sharp.

This chord can come from the D major scale and the E Melodic minor scale.

This chord can also be called C♯m7♭5 and A9th.

A Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are A, C, E and F sharp.

This chord can come from the G major scale and the A Melodic minor scale.

This chord can also be called F♯m7♭5 and D9th.

D Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are D, F, A and B.

This chord can come from the C major scale and the D Melodic minor scale.

This chord can also be called Bm7♭5 and G9th.

G Minor 6th Guitar Chord Images

The Notes for this chord are G, B flat, D and E.

This chord can come from the F major scale and the G Melodic minor scale.

This chord can also be called Em7♭5 and C9th.

I hope you found this page useful.

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Discover the Natural Minor Scale

The natural minor scale is part of the major scale, made by building a scale from the 6th note of the major scale. This scale is also known as the Aeolian mode, each note in the major scale has a mode name.

It has a smooth sound and is used for many minor key songs.

If you raise the 7th of this scale you will have the Harmonic minor scale.

If you raise the 6th and the 7th of this scale you will have the Melodic minor scale.

This is where the minor Pentatonic scale comes from.

Here is a written A minor Natural.

A Minor Natural

Here is what it sounds like

Here are the natural minor scales with their relative major scale it was built from. Eb and D# are the same pitch but written different. This is where I switched to the sharp keys.

The relative major scale is where the minor scale came from. It contains the same notes.

You also have a tonic minor scale relationship too. The C major scale can go into any of the C minor scales very easily. You hear this in songs often, where a major chord changes to a minor chord.

The Beatles song Norwegian Wood does this for the break in the song and then goes back to major for the verse.

Natural Minor Scale Chords

Here is a list of the chords for the natural minor scales. These are the same chords as in the major scale but I thought you might like to look at them from another point of view.









































































































The natural minor scales are where we get minor blues progressions with minor chords for the V chord. Most of the time the V chord is a dominant 7th

This scale also contains a minor and a major Pentatonic scales.

Minor Blues Progression

You will see this progression with the V chord(Em) as a dominant 7th(E7) more often than with a minor 5th chord.

If it has a dominant chord then the progression comes from the Harmonic or Melodic minor scales as they have a dominant 5th chord in them.


The Aeolian ModeThe Natural Minor Scale

We covered the Aeolian mode in the major scales section under the name of the Natural Minor scale. But being it is a mode I included it here too.

This scale is good for improvising over minor chords. It contains the minor Pentatonic scale as well as the relative major Pentatonic scale.

Learn Scales EasierTake it for a Free Ride

Guitar Scales Method

This mode can be used to improvise over the ii, iii or vi minor chords of the major scale. However using the A aeolian with a ii chord you would be in the key of G which has an F sharp. And using it with a iii chord you would be in F and the B would be flat. The iii chord isn’t used as a home chord like the ii or vi.

You can also use it to build chords like you do in the major scale or the Melodic and Minor scales.

The song Smooth Operator written by Ray St. John and Sade Adu, is an Aeolian mode based song – vi(6)-iii(3)-ii(2)-iii(3). In F it would be Dm-Am-Gm-Am Repeat

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Aeolian Mode

Here is what it sounds like played against an A minor chord. It’s a fairly mild sounding scale.

Try starting on the second or ninth note on this scale on beat 2 it gives a minor 9th sound.

This scale also contains the C major scale plus the A minor and C major pentatonic scales.

The A Aeolian played against an A minor chord

The Aeolian List

The Aeolian Formula

This is how you make one from the Major Scale like so…

Aeolian Formula








Remember this mode is the major scale starting from the 6th note.

This mode can be combined with its Tonic major scale too by adding the C♯, F♯ and G♯ notes while improvising. Experiment.

This would expand the scale to A B C C♯ D E F F♯ G G♯

You can use a note before or after a scale note(Pick, Slide into or Hammer on or off from a higher note) to lead into the scale or chord note, these are usually short notes but give the scale more color.

This will give you another angle or way of thinking for improvising so your solo’s don’t get predictable

I hope you found this page useful.


How to Read Guitar Chords…Beyond the Basic Chords

When you know how to read guitar chords you’ll think how easy it is. They’re not hard to figure out, it’s a simple system.

I’m not talking about images I mean the C9, Fmaj7 or D7 you will see in sheet music and song books. Without a diagram you need to find out to make these chords.

They also get more complicated like C7b5 or E7+9 and can be confusing to the beginner until you understand how chords are made.

The Major Scale and Chords

The major scale is the basis for most chords you will come across. Below is the C major scale and numbers that correspond to the notes. This is where the numbers on those chords you see come from. It’s also how a lot of them are named.































Chord Structure
How to Read Guitar Chords

This is the beginning of how to read guitar chords.

Every other note of a scale is how many but not all chords are made. This amounts to stacking major and minor third intervals together to make chords.

Before you go any farther you should know what intervals are and how we use them for scales and chords.

Take a look at the intervals page.

Every new chord starts with 1 no matter what position it is in the scale.

This makes it easier to remember and build chords using the major scale as a base.

This lets us build chords without being in a particular scale.

This is a chord building tool and has nothing to do with music keys.

Chord Formulas Based on Major Scale

This is the basic scale for how to read guitar chords.

All chord formulas are based on the major scale. The formula for a major triad would be 1 3 5. The formula for a minor chord would be 1 3b 5, the formula for a minor 7th chord would be 1 3b 5 7b.

This is because the major scale has a major 3rd and a major 7th and these notes have to be flatted to make the chord formulas work. This is a tool for making chords and has nothing to do with keys or scales. This is a separate little tool someone thought up a long time ago.

The Third Intervals

These are very important intervals as they tell us if our chord is a major or a minor. That one little note makes a huge difference.

Major Thirds

A major third interval is 4 notes or frets from the first note. If your chord has this in it it’s a major chord.

Major chords are just shown as C or F no major added to it unless it has a major 7th in it. Explained down below.

Minor Thirds

A minor third interval is 3 notes or frets from the first note. If your chord has this in it it’s a minor chord.

Minor chords use a small m after them to tell you it’s minor, like this Am or Dm

7th Intervals and Chords

There are two types of 7th intervals and chords.

A major 7th interval is 11 notes or frets from the first note. If your chord has this it’s a major 7th chord.

A minor 7th interval is 10 notes or frets from the first note. If your chord has this it’s a plain 7th chord.

An easy way to remember these is to think 1 note back from the root or root octave for the major 7th and 2 notes back for the minor 7th.

A Cmaj 7th would have a B in it and a C7 would have a B♭ in it.

Major 7th Chords

The major 7th will have some form of major in the chord symbol name usually maj like this Cmaj7. It it has the maj in it this means it has a major 7th in it. The chord could be Cmaj9, this means it is a 9th chord with a major 7th in it.

Minor 7th Intervals

A minor 7th interval just uses a 7 after the chord name like C7 or Dm7.

Any chord can have a minor 7th interval in it not just minor chords as the name seems to imply.

Here is a page on 7th chords Seventh Chords

If a chord has a “major 3rd interval” in it. It’s a Major Chord It won’t have maj after the note unless it has a “major 7th interval.”

If a chord contains a “minor 3rd interval.” It’s minor. It will have a m after the chord note like Cm.

If a chord has a “minor 7th interval” it there will be a “plain 7” after the chord note.

These are the main rules on how to read guitar chords. The rest of it is just adding notes to basic triads, 3 note chords.

Augmented and Diminished Chords

These two are variations of the major and minor triads. They both vary the fifth of a major or minor chord.

How to Read Augmented Chords

There isn’t an inversion named augmented but the augmented chord is made from two major intervals, 1 to 3 and 3 to 5# or C to E and E to G# for the C+ chord

The + sign or aug is used to show an augmented chord like this C+, also other notes can be targeted like C7+9. This Chord would be built 1 3 5 7b 9#. The notes would be C E G Bb D#.

Let’s Analyze this. The C is the root, the E is a “major 3rd”, the G is the 5th, the 7th is a “minor 7th” and the D# is the augmented 9th.

The Diminished Chord

The Diminished chord is made from two minor 3rd intervals 1 to 3b 5b or C to Eb to Gb.

There are only two diminished chord forms the diminished triad and the diminished 7. The diminished 7th chord is made from 3 minor 3rd intervals.

The Diminished 7th chord has 4 names, one for each note and each chord form repeats itself every 3rd fret apart

The formula would be 1 3b 5b 7bb/6 or C Eb Gb A. This is how it works out using the major chord formula. It’s still called a 7th even though it’s a 6th.

The symbol for the diminished chord is dim or the degree symbol C°.

The list below will sum up how to read most guitar chords.

There’s 1 fret difference between the major 7th and minor 7th.

A major chord will be plain like C or F

Maj – This means the chord will have a major 7th in it

7 – A 7th chord without major means it has a minor 7th

aug or + – It has a sharp 5th or another note raised note

dim or ° – This means a minor 3rd and a flatted 5th

A minor chord will have min or m after the note letter

A Long Chord Example

The 13th chord has the most notes in it. We also leave many notes out so it can be played.

How to make a 13th Chord

We will use the C scale from above to make a Cmaj13th chord

G – 5th – These 3 notes are a major triad

D – 9th/2nd – supposed to be in a 13th

F – 11th/4th – this note is usually left out of a 13th chord

There are too many note to play so we play the necessary ones.

The root can be eliminated especially if there is a bass player but it makes it harder to remember the chord.

The 3rd is needed to tell the difference from major and minor.

The 5th can be left out of any chord unless it’s altered, sharp or flat

The 7th is like the 3rd when it comes to major and minor. It stays

The 9th should stay in a 13th chord

The 11th goes it gives a suspended 4th sound, not good for a 13th chord.

The 13th has to stay or we’ll have to change the chord name.

This leaves us with C – E – B – D – A . I kept the root for this chord

How to Read Guitar Chords

If you have read the above and know a major scale or two you should be able to understand what these symbols mean even if you don’t know how to play the chord.

You will at least have a basic understanding of what chord type it is, major, minor 7th etc.

Thank You for visiting our How to Read Guitar Chords page.

I hope you found this page useful.

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Alternate PickingFast Guitar Picking

Alternate picking is the way you pick single notes on a guitar most of the time. Mainly this is for speed and to set yourself up for the next note.

A lot of the time in this style picking the up beat and stroke of the pick is an eighth note. Using a metronome will tighten up your timing.

A good way to start training your picking hand is to use some slow simple picking, you don’t even have to finger any notes.

The image to your left will open a page to a product that will help you develop speed and accuracy.

Just start playing a note with an down up motion in time with the metronome. Play in time and don’t worry about speed that will come with accuracy.

Here is a link that will take you to my metronome page where you can find some tips on how to use one.

How to Use Metronomes

The Down Stroke

  • Make sure you are holding the pick right. The tip should extend past your thumb and index finger about a quarter of an inch(a little less than the thickness of a CD case).
  • The pick tip should extend past the string but your thumb or index finger should not touch the string. (Don’t allow to much pick to stick out past your thumb either)
  • The pick should be Parallel with the strings. (The tip should be pointing straight in not aimed down or up.)
  • The action should come from your “arm” and not your wrist.
  • Don’t twist your wrist to play the note, move your arm from the elbow. (This may seem awkward or stiff but it will feel natural after some practice.)
  • You “will” see your wrist move some(this is natural) but the main action should come from the forearm.
  • When you pick a guitar string you should push through the string and not strike it like a piano key.

Here is a link for holding a pick. To some of you this may sound stupid but it can help your playing when you get into more advanced things.

How to Hold a Pick

Single Notes – Alternate Picking

The first way you should learn is to play one string and stop in between the string you played and the one below it.

Practice this until you can control the pick from hitting the string below it.

It may be simple for some of you but not for others. There will be some aspects of guitar playing that will be easy for some and hard for others, this is normal and doesn’t mean you can’t learn guitar. Not everyone learns at the same rate.

The Up Stroke

Every thing you do for the down stroke applies to the upstroke but in reverse. The upstroke may feel a little awkward at first but it will become 2nd nature after a bit of practice. Here you want to pay attention to the grip you have on the pick because this is when you will most likely drop it in the beginning.

Concentrate on every little move until you start to do it automatically and check yourself every now and then. It’s easy to develop bad form by being lazy that will affect your playing.

If you can watch yourself in a mirror or better video yourself. Video is better because you don’t have to watch until you review the video. Just like the Pro Football players do on Monday after the Sunday game to see what they did wrong.

String Energy

A neat thing happens when you play a string. As you pass through the string it gives energy to your pick movement. This extra juice you will put to use to propel you to other strings and notes.

It’s the rebound force of the string although I don’t know what it’s called in Physics’ terms. It may be inertia, an object in motion tends to stay in motion, I think that’s what inertia is.

We can redirect this energy to our advantage for alternate picking.

This is why in the beginning stopping in between strings with out hitting the other one may be a challenge for some.

A little practice will get this straightened out. Your just stopping motion but in very short distances.

Practice Bar – Alternate Picking

Practice stopping in between strings on the first measure with down strokes and then practice your alternate picking on the 2nd measure.

Practice Bar Audio

Alternating your picking with up and down strokes

Muscle tension will occur when you play guitar. You must pay attention to this tension and relax your muscles until you do it without thinking about it.

Tension will cause mistakes and make your muscles get tired faster. The main thing about muscle tension is being aware of it so you can do something about it.

Your tension can be anywhere it doesn’t have to be in your arm, your shoulders or stomach is a good place like getting butterflies before a performance. Check your whole body and relax. Take a few long slow deep breaths.

As you play you create muscle tension just by doing it. It’s just like exercising but you’re using your arms and fingers.

There will be times in the music where you can relax your muscles. Play a different version of a chord, this changes the muscles you are using.

The more attention you give to this tension now will help your playing later. It’s like muscle memory except you are conditioning your mind and body to react to what you trained it to do. Mind Control.

String Skipping

After you can play some eighth notes like in the example above your ready to expand to other strings that aren’t next to the one your playing.

This is where alternating come in handy for speed. This is also useful for playing a picking pattern in a chord much like finger picking.

String Skipping Practice List

The following list should be practiced until you can go from any string to any other string without delay.

If you practice these moves slowly and watch your hand and pick to make sure you don’t hit other strings you will have half the battle of playing guitar won.

6 is the top heavy E string

6 to 5

6 to 4

6 to 3

6 to 2

6 to 1

5 to 6

5 to 4

5 to 3

5 to 2

5 to 1

4 to 6

4 to 5

4 to 3

4 to 2

4 to 1

3 to 6

3 to 5

3 to 4

3 to 2

3 to 1

2 to 6

2 to 5

2 to 4

2 to 3

2 to 1

1 to 6

1 to 5

1 to 4

1 to 3

1 to 2

Practice playing these the following ways

Down Stroke – Down Stroke

Down Stroke – Up Stroke – Alternate – Down Start

Up Stroke – Down Stroke – Alternate – Up Start

Up Stroke – Up Stroke

Some won’t be practical for regular playing but good for picking practice.

After you get comfortable with these try playing them with different chords you know and combine two or more together to make a pattern.

Guitar Speed Software

Here is another product I have used for increasing speed, accuracy and keeping your notes clean. This software takes the boredom out of plain practice and gives you goals to shoot for.

I hope you found this page useful.


How to Change Guitar StringsA Lesson You Can’t Miss!

How you change guitar strings is vital to staying in tune. There is one way that I found works the best and that is to lock the string in place.

Changing your guitar strings can be a problem for beginners and people that have been playing awhile. If you string your guitar the right way you shouldn’t have any tuning problems.

Your guitar will go out of tune, this is normal. Temperature, altitude and humidity affect guitars, even electrics.

If you bend strings a lot or more than a whole tone or use real light gauge strings you will go out of tune more often but changing guitar strings right will lessen the amount of tuning.

Before You Change Guitar Strings

Changing your strings will take a little patience in the beginning until you get used to how much extra string to allow before bending it into the machine head hole or slot.

The heavier the string the more string you need to allow for wrapping around the peg. The string should wrap about 2-3 times around the post no more than this. The length will vary with each string because of the difference in diameter. A thinner string needs less wrapping length.

Experience changing strings will help make this necessary task easier.

Removing Old Guitar Strings

Loosen all your strings enough so they can be removed. Do not cut them with tension on them. Now is a good time to polish your guitar if you want.

A string winder speeds this up, another thing you can do is loosen the screw at the end of the tuner handle enough so its easier to turn. Don’t forget to tighten it after you have the new strings on and are ready to tune it.

Wipe Down Neck

You should wipe your fingerboard with a rough cloth like a wash cloth to remove dirt before you change guitar strings. A little tung oil can be applied sparingly (just a little) to the fretboard after it is clean(Check with Guitar Maker First). Allow the tung oil time to penetrate usually overnight and then wipe clean. Too much will gunk up your strings and dull their sound.

Check with your guitar maker for care on your particular guitar fretboard. They may have another method.


Acoustic Guitar String Removal

Make sure all tension is off before you pop the pin. To remove strings on an acoustic you have to remove the pins at the bridge. This requires you to pry up the pins. Most winders have a notch in them for removing guitar pins.

String Un-Winder

A string winder is a good tool to have for changing strings, they don’t cost much and they make the job easier. If you don’t have a string winder on hand carefully pry the pins up with something that won’t mark or break your bridge.

Putting Strings On

To change guitar strings on an acoustic you place the ball end in the hole and put the pin in lining up the groove if the pin has one with the string. You should be able to pull up on the string without the pin easily popping out. If it does just repeat untill the ball seats right.

Next pull the string with a little pressure up to the tuning key and through the hole in it

Next estimate about 2 inches past the tuning key for the 6th string. This distance will vary depending on the thickness of your strings and the diameter of the post. This is where you will bend the string on a 90 degree turn. Bend the string, small pliers can be used.

Next hold the string at the bend you put in it and set it in the slot in the nut if you can now. You may have to wait until you have a little tension on it. This is where a string winder comes in handy.

Next turn the tuning key so the string starts to wind around the peg from the middle of the neck to the outer edge. While doing this keep a finger on the string so it wraps on the post from the bottom and doesn’t lay on top of the string only against it on the post.

It should look like a tightly wound spring with 2-3 turns when finished.

4-5 Turns for the thinner strings

Don’t Tighten Too Much Yet

Only tighten up enough so the strings aren’t sloppy. You will tune the guitar after all the strings are on.

You just have to repeat this process for the rest of the strings. Remember the string turns around the post from the middle of the neck towards the outside. This will work no matter what type of headstock you have. If you have 3 tuning keys on each side one side will turn in the opposite direction

Click the link below for info on tuning if you need some help.

It takes a little practice to change guitar strings so don’t get frustrated if it doesn’t come out perfect the first few times. Just keep on improving until you got it down pat.

What makes this the right way is that the piece of string that goes through the hole gets locked in place by the coil of string on the post. This keeps the string from slipping and making the guitar go out of tune.

Cut the Excess String Off

After your guitar is tuned. Cut the excess string off about a quarter inch past the post, using a sharp pair of wire cutters. Thin strings can be hard to cut with old or dull snips, they just bend.Bend the cut edge in toward the middle of the headstock.

A small pair of needle nose pliers work good because you can cut the string and use the pliers to bend the string end in. What happens if you don’t bend them in is when you go to tune the little nub will jab the tip of your finger usually under the fingernail.

The reason for bending them in is so you don’t cut yourself, those cut edges are sharp and guess which fingers will get stabbed. Your fretting fingers of course because that’s the hand you turn the machine keys with.

About Guitar Tuning

Here is how I tune my guitars. It’s a simple process for tuning any guitar.

A Guitar Tuning Lesson Page

Tune It Up

Next you tune it to concert pitch. This is a world wide standard for tuning musical instruments. Very much like music notation which can be read by people all over the world who can’t speak your language but can read the music exactly as you do.

It’s important to stay tuned to concert pitch for you ear training that’s going on even though you don’t know about it yet.

Here is a link to the guitar tuner page.

Tune It Up

Electric or Acoustic

There are a ton of string brands out there, these links take you to the general category pages for acoustic and electric strings.

Acoustic Guitar strings

Here is a link to where I get my acoustic guitar strings sometimes. They usually have the best price and fast delivery.

Acoustic Strings (Opens New Window)

Electric Guitar strings

This link will take you to the electric guitar string section.

Electric Strings (Opens New Window)

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Discover the Lydian Augmented Mode…More Improvising Tools

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The Lydian augmented mode comes from the 3rd note of the melodic minor scale and is good for improvising over chords with a flat or sharp 5th or a sharp 11 in it.

This is for altered 5th or 11th notes. A flat 5 and an augmented 11th are the same note.

This is played against an E♭ma7♯5, this chord is mostly used as a passing chord. A chord leading you into a main chord or another passing chord.



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The E-flat Lydian augmented played over an E-flat major 7th sharp 5 chord

This is a little rough, this isn’t a very melodic chord to play against.

Lydian Augmented List

The Lydian Augmented Formula

This one goes 1-2-3-♯4-♯5-6-7

This ones not too bad to remember.

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Super Locrian Mode…The Super Improvising Mode

The super locrian mode can be used for minor 7 flat 5 and any altered dominate chord combination there are no exceptions.

You can use it on flatted 5th’s, augmented 5ths, flatted 9th’s, augmented 9th’s or any combination. You can have a flatted 5th and a raised fifth in the same chord or a flatted 9th and a raised 9th.

This mode comes from the 7th note of the melodic minor scale

The scale below comes from the C melodic minor scale.

To make a melodic minor scale you just have to lower the 3rd of any major scale.

I’m playing this mode in B against a B minor 7th flat 5 chord.

B super locrian played against a Bm7 flat 5 chord

The Super Locrian List

You see double ♯♯’s on some notes this is so you don’t have to use a note twice.

A double ♯♯ means you raise the note a whole tone or 2 frets

Super Locrian Mode Formula

This one is 1-♭2-♭3-♭4-♭5-♭6-♭7

This one is pretty useless unless you have a photographic memory.

However if you can keep track of the notes you are lowering every note but the root.

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Discover The B Major Scale

The B major scale gives us 5 sharps making it tough to remember what’s sharp unless you know the circle of 5ths. It’s actually easier to remember what’s not flat, the E and the B.

This scale is only one fret away from the C scale. This might help you to keep track until you know it.

You don’t see a lot of sheet music using this scale, probably because the pitch is close to C.

The sharp notes are F,C,G,D and A. Notice the each one is a 5th away from the one before using the musical alphabet.

This scale is made from two tetrachords from the E and the F♯ scale.

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These scales are made from each other and you will see the same chords in the B, E and F♯ scales.

B Scale

The B Major Scale Construction

The first four notes of this scale came from the key of E. The last four notes of the scale come from the key of F♯.

B Major Tetra-chords

A tetra-chord is four notes that make up each half a major scale. All major scales have two tetra-chords.

The first B tetra-chord comes from the last E scale tetra-chord and the second tetra-chord comes from the first tetra-chord of the F sharp major scale.


1st Tetrachord


2nd Tetrachord


B Major Scale Numbering

Major scales have numbers that go with each note. This way you can refer to numbers makes it easy to refer to any scale or chord no matter what key you are in.

This is our way of referring to the chords but it can also be used for building chords from scales. The numbers are normally written in Roman numerals, upper case for major chords and lower case for minor chords.

B Major Chords









B Major Notation-Tab

B Major Chord Diagrams

B Major Key signature

This is how the starting bar(Key Signature) in sheet music will look if you are in the key of B. The sharp symbol is over the F and D line and the C,G and A spaces in the music staff.

This doesn’t mean the music won’t have other flats or sharps in it. They will be marked in the music itself. This means every note in the F, C, G, D, and A position in the music staff will be sharp.

This helps keep the music easier to read especially as we get more flats or sharps in a key.

Major Key


Key Signature

Rel Minor


F♯, C♯, G♯, D♯, A♯


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